It is generally up to the actors to deal with restructuring but a regulatory framework does exist in each European country, setting out the rules that define the process. National and regional governments may also try to promote solutions and provide resources (funds and measures) to alleviate the difficulties at national or local level.

These regulatory frameworks are deeply rooted in national historical contexts, and cultures, and are consistent with national institutional and legal frameworks.

It is then difficult to precisely understand how restructuring works in each national context. However we have tried not only to explain how I restructuring is dealt with in each country but also to compare the various national approaches and to learn from these comparisons.